Artificial Intelligence Around Us
During the 1980’s, in America there was much interest in the field of Artificial Intelligence. The great expectations of the 1980’s were followed by the skepticism of the 1990’s, at which time the limitations of capabilities of our current computers were emphasized. The skepticism of the 1990’s has now for the most part passed, and one of the main scientific and industrial challenges of the 21st century is the development of Artificial Intelligent Systems (AIS).
The development of AIS is aimed at the creation of new technologies that will provide solutions to problems in the areas of electronics and heavy industries, agriculture, energy and resource conservation, transportation, human health, public safety, national security, and other fields.
Speaking at a conference in Buenos Aires in 1995, Albert Arnold Gore, Jr. (Vice President of the United States from 1993-2001 under President Bill Clinton) remarked, ‘These highways, or more accurately, networks of distributed intelligence, will allow us to share information, to connect, and to communicate as a global community. From these connections we will derive robust and sustainable economic progress, strong democracies, better solutions to global and local environmental challenges, improved health care, and ultimately, a greater sense of shared stewardship of our small planet’.
From a historical point of view, AIS appeared in the last century as result of the evolution of man-machine systems, in which the functions of man and machine are interrelated for the operation of these systems. For example, a craftsman operating a working lathe, a driver and his running car, and the workers and machines at a power station all form man-machine systems. In a man-machine system, the human operator supplies the goal, the direction, and the integration. The machine executes everything according to the given directions, and provides feedback.
In the process of man-machine systems evolution, the role of man has decreased relative to the role of the machines he operates. To execute routine functions, machines have been increasingly equipped with control subsystems, and the resulting man-machi